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Programme Papers from the 9th IACC
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The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference

The Papers

Abstracts of presentations

Day 1, Workshop 2,
Eastern and Central Europe and CIS - Fighting Corruption in Transition Economics

Bykov, Vladimir: Chair, Main Administration for Co-Operation With Entrepreneurs Associations, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russion Federation
The Role of Business in Fostering the Transparency

This paper discusses the introduction of codes of conduct and business ethics by corporations in Russia. To date, 25 business associations have adopted Business Ethics Principles. To assist with implementation of these ethics principles, Basic Guidelines for Codes of Business Conduct have been developed in co-operation with the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the US-Russia Business Development Committee. Further Recommendations on Introducing Business Ethics in Russia cover four main areas: business associations, government, media, and educational institutions.

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Carasciuc, Lilia:
Republic of Moldova: economic consequences of corruption

The economic prospects of countries in transition are strongly compromised by corruption. Reform efforts themselves are undercut by corruption practices. Carasciuc lists the economic, social, environmental consequences of corruption, as well as its effects on state security. One of the main detrimental effects of corruption on the national economy is the growth of illicit transactions and a shadow economy, including the drugs trade. Several reform measures for the Republic of Moldova are suggested.

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Coalition 2000:
Corruption Indexes of Coalition 2000

The paper presents the results of a study which is part of the Corruption Monitoring System (CMS) of Coalition 2000 in Bulgaria. The resulting corruption indexes include information about: a) Attitudes towards corruption; b) Corrupt practices; c)Assessment of the spread of corruption; and d)Corruption-related expectations.

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Holmes, Leslie: University of Melbourne
Corruption, Weak States and Economic Rationalism in Central and Eastern Europe

There is a widespread perception that corruption has been increasing in virtually all kinds of politico-economic system since the 1980s. The problem appears to be more acute in post-communist states than in most other kinds of system, and is often linked to organised crime, which affects countries far beyond CEE. The paper provides an outline of the scale and nature of the problem. Then it considers just a few of the many reasons for the apparently dramatic increase in corruption in the CEE countries in the 1990s. It is argued that the neo-liberal (economic rationalist) ideology that has come to dominate so much of the Western world over the past two decades has impacted upon CEE corruption levels, albeit in a complex manner. The third section focuses on the methods that can be adopted to combat corruption. In the conclusions, there is consideration of the extent to which the problem of corruption in the CEE states is being exaggerated, and is partly a function of Western constructions. Having argued that the problem really is serious, it is maintained that the social and political implications of corruption are of even greater concern in post-communist countries than in, notably, Western states.

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Kiknadze, Gia: Deputy Chairman, Corruption Research Centre
Lessons Learned in Instituting Legal Reforms: Case Study from Georgia

The paper discusses the wide-ranging legal and institutional reforms which have been carried out in Bulgaria since 1995, and the impact which this has had in reducing corruption. Effective measures included the appointment of a parliamentary commission against corruption; cutting back on regulation of the private sector; privatisation of state enterprises; implementation of new legislation concerning private property and enterprise; and general judicial reform leading to an impartial rule of law. Legal reforms were especially effective because they were carried out systematically over several years.

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Stoyanov, Alexander: CSD
Coalition building and monitoring corruption: the Coalition 2000 process and its results

The Coalition 2000 process, aiming to develop an Anti-Corruption Action Plan for Bulgaria and implement an awareness campaign and a Corruption Monitoring System, is described. Its main targets are the factors which influence corruption: monopoly, discretionary power and accountability. The impact strategy of Coalition 2000 is based upon the following main three elements: a) defining impact objectives through an Anti-Corruption Action Plan; b) affecting behavioral change through dissemination and advocacy; and c) reinforcing the awareness raising component and tracking progress through Corruption Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS was designed to provide topical information about corruption perceptions and levels of intensity of corrupt practices in different sectors of public life on a regular basis. The Anti-Corruption Action Plan for Bulgaria is presented in outline.

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Wesolowski, Zbigniew: Vice President of NIK, Poland
Experiences of the Supreme Chamber of Control of the Republic of Poland in Disclosing Corruption

Effective and reliable internal control systems contributes to eliminating corruption and fraud. In the last two years the Chamber notified the proper Committees of about 700 cases of breaches of public finance discipline. The Public Finance Act envisages a rigorous system of penalties for such breaches, which include fines and bans on holding management positions where decisions on public finance disposal are made for a period of 1 - 5 years. Making audit findings and assessments of activity studies publicly known often contributes to preventing corrupt practices. Certain characteristics of Poland's economic transition have led to higher risks of corruption. These include: an ineffective taxation system; insufficient vindication of state Treasury claims; an extensive system of customs and other tax exemptions; an extensive system of licenses and permits; irregular privatisation procedures, in particular illegal take-overs of state property by companies established on the basis of privatised enterprises; incorrect management of special public funds; banking operations involving the granting of credits, loans, issuing bank warranties and guarantees. In addition to internal audits, legal mechanisms and codes of conduct are important in providing a disincentive and a framework for disciplinary action.

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