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Programme Papers from the 9th IACC
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The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference

The Papers

Abstracts of presentations

Day 4, Plenary Sessions

Sangweni, S. S. :
A Holistic Approach to Combating Corruption

The paper describes the process through which South Africa is rebuilding a culture of ethics to combat corruption. Codes can be rendered ineffective either because they are poorly designed and/or badly implemented. The emphasis is therefore shifting to integration of common values into daily life and individual decisions, where individual judgement can be monitored and supported by an ethics-based civil culture. The most critical element of an emerging ethics infrastructure must be the culture and ethos in government and civil society that should permeate everyday work. This can be built through communication and training, and most importantly, through a process of continual dialogue on ethical issues. The organisational integrity approach that been found useful and successful in practice. The systematic reform of structures, systems, policies and procedures, skills and resources is also needed.

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Eigen, Peter :
The Growing Role of Civil Society in a Globalised World The Case of International Corruption

In introducing the plenary session 'Developing Effective Integrity Systems and Strategies against Corruption", Eigen notes how far the anti-corruption movement has come in its understanding of the phenomenon of corruption and its recognition of what is needed to begin to eradicate it. Since the days when TI first coined the phrase "national integrity system" in the Source Book, the holistic approach to curbing corruption and the idea of systemic reform based on prevention has become central to many of the anti-corruption efforts being undertaken today. The growth of TI has been due both to the increasing importance of the anti-corruption agenda and the rise of the influence of civil society in general. Both governments and private companies must work more closely with civil society in the future.

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Noble, Ronald K. :
Confronting Police Corruption: Protecting Individuals from Malicious Allegations

The paper discusses the challenge facing the police on the issue of corruption. Police agencies possess all three elements which create breeding grounds for corruption: power, discretion and secrecy. Indeed, given the nature of their duties they must have all three to do their job while protecting the privacy rights of citizens. Since challenging the first two points reduces the effectiveness of the police, the answer lies in increased transparency. In general, it is important that heads of police become more active in anti-corruption circles. The second point made by Noble is the difficult challenge of balancing our efforts to battle corruption while avoiding making public, false, anonymous allegations of corruption or wrongdoing against individuals and societies.

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Goh, Kun :
A Systematic Approach to Anti-Corruption: The Case of the Seoul Metropolitan Government

The paper describes the best practice case of Seoul municipal government's anti-corruption programme. The programme uses a systematic approach, simultaneously pursuing four major lines of action: preventive measures, punitive measures, increasing transparency in administration, and enhancing public-private partnership. Central to prevention is deregulation: some 80 percent of excessive municipal regulations were either abolished or eased during Goh's first year of office. Long-term collusion of officials with their constituents is prevented by reallocating duties regularly. A direct reporting system for infractions of the 'zero-tolerance' rule helps the punitive system against corruption. The OPEN Internet online system has increased transparency of government by allowing citizens to monitor administrative procedures. Civil society is actively involved through citizen inspections and direct communication lines.

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King, Mervyn :
Statement to Plenary

Justice King discusses aspects of managing corruption with a large corporation or public institution.

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Lozbenko, Leonid :
Customs Integrity Issues

The paper describes the position of the World Customs Organisation on integrity and the steps that it is taking to assist its 150 member countries to combat corruption. Customs administrations, probably more than any other public bodies, are inevitably faced with classic circumstances that sustain institutional corruption. Opportunities will arise wherever there exists the lethal combination of administrative monopoly coupled with the necessity for wide discretion, particularly in a work environment that may lack proper systems of control and accountability. At the 1993 annual meeting of the WCO in Arusha, Tanzania, the Declaration on Integrity in Customs was adopted, listing twelve concrete measures to be taken to reduce corruption. An Integrity Action Plan was decided on in Brussels in September 1998. It is centred on three areas of action: WCO leadership and promotion; activities with regional focus; and activities involving co-operation with the private sector.

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Abed, George :
Statement to the Plenary

The paper addresses the work which the IMF has been doing in the field of transparency. It notes the measures taken to ensure greater transparency of the internal workings of the IMF through publications, consultation, and a code of conduct for staff. The IMF has also been working with its members to promote transparency in their operations in all four areas of its mandate: data dissemination; fiscal transparency; monetary and exchange relations and banking issues; and bank supervision.

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