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Programme Papers from the 9th IACC
past IACCs



The 9th International Anti-Corruption Conference

The Papers

Abstracts of presentations

Open Presentations

Falkowska, Macieja:
Opinions On Bribes - Survey Report

The paper describes the results of surveys carried out in Poland to study attitudes toward bribery. Topics covered are: the perceived scope of this social pathology, type of the matters settled by means of bribes, and especially an ethical appraisal of the very phenomenon. Tables of the results are included in an annex.

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Getnick, Neil V. :
The Twin Fights For Human Rights and Against Corruption

For the fight against corruption to take on full meaning we must insure that we build a social order based on principles of integrity. As a private commercial law firm with public interest goals, we focus on four areas of practice: (1) Complex fraud investigation and litigation; (2) federal and state whistleblower cases; (3) internal and independent monitoring; and (4) human rights. It is not the gangster himself who is of concern. It is what he is doing to our cities, our communities, our moral fibre. The fight against corruption and for civil rights is intimately entwined. Newly developed weapons to wage those fights include the Independent Private Sector Inspector General or IPSIG. This is a highly effective independent monitoring mechanism equally effective at monitoring a company for payment of bribes as for unfair labour practices.

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Kaufman, Eileen:
Issues in Formulating and Monitoring Integrity Standards

The presentation outlines with processes, actors and variations in formulating and monitoring integrity standards.

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Kibwana, Kivutha:
Corruption and Human Rights: Protecting Those Who Fight Against Corruption

The paper describes the need to protect those who fight against corruption in many countries. Although most governments now speak about corruption themselves, many still oppress those who criticise them. Focusing especially on civil society actors who speak out against corruption, Kibwana lists the means used to silence anti-corruption fighters. They include the use of the judiciary system by accusing activists on trumped up charges; loss of jobs and businesses; loss of freedom of association; curtailing freedom of assembly and right of demonstration; and bribing activists so as to co-opt them. The international community can act to protect activists by providing funds for legal defence; fact-finding; and clear support of anti-corruption groups which have been attacked by governments.

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Vinod, H. D.:
Study of Corruption Data and Using the Internet to Reduce Corruption

Vinod briefly reviews some of the micro and macro theory of corruption and relate it to various socio-economic and political variables. To quantify the burden of corruption Vinod uses Harrison and Vinod's (1992) 95% confidence interval for the marginal excess burden (MEB) of taxation. In developing countries, one dollar of corruption is estimated to impose a burden of $1.67, which becomes very large when compounded over time. A cross-sectional data-analysis reveals the relevance of "red tape" and "efficiency of judiciary." A subset regression using sophisticated (Cp and Akaike) criteria reveals other important factors. Vinod argues that Corruption's economic harm is widely underestimated and bribery is recognised only "in the abstract," but individual criminals are not exposed. He suggests international aid and co-operation in exposing and fighting corruption. To this end, he describes a new Internet-based information storage and retrieval project.

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